China's black tea includes Gongfu black tea, black crushed tea, and small black tea, which are produced in much the same way, with four processes of withering, rolling, fermentation, and drying. The quality characteristics of various black teas are red soup and red leaves, and the formation of color and aroma has similar chemical changes, but there are differences in the conditions and degrees of change. The following uses Gongfu black tea as an example to introduce the manufacturing process of black tea.
Steps of making black tea
Withering refers to the process of dehydration of fresh leaves over a period of time, causing certain hard and crisp stem leaves to wither and wither, and is the first process of the initial production of black tea. After withering, the water can be properly evaporated, the leaves are soft, and the toughness is enhanced, which is convenient for shaping. In addition, this process and the disappearance of the grassy flavor and the fresh fragrance of tea are an important processing stage to form the aroma of black tea. Withering methods include natural withering and withering. Natural withering means that the tea leaves are thinly spread indoors or outdoors where the sunlight is not too strong, and set aside for a certain period of time. Withering trough withering is to place fresh leaves in aeration troughs and to pass hot air to accelerate the withering process. This is a commonly used method of withering.
The purpose of black tea twisting is the same as green tea. During the twisting process, tea leaves are shaped and the color and aroma concentration are enhanced. At the same time, the leaf cells are destroyed, which facilitates the necessary oxidation under the action of enzymes, which is beneficial to the smooth progress of fermentation.
Fermentation is a unique stage in the production of black tea. After fermentation, the leaf color changes from green to red, forming the quality characteristics of black tea and red leaf red soup. The mechanism is that under the action of leaf twisting, the tissue cell membrane structure is damaged, and the permeability is increased, so that polyphenols and oxidase are fully contacted, oxidative polymerization occurs under the enzymatic action, and other chemical components also undergo profound changes accordingly. , Make the green tea leaves red, and form the color and aroma quality of black tea. Fermenters are currently used to control temperature and time for fermentation. The fermentation is moderate, the young leaves are evenly red, the old leaves are red and green, the grass gas disappears, and the fruit is ripe.
Drying is a process in which fermented tea billets are roasted at high temperature to quickly evaporate moisture to achieve the quality and dryness. Its purpose is threefold: use high temperature to quickly inactivate the enzyme's activity and stop fermentation; evaporate moisture, reduce the volume, fix the shape, and maintain the dryness to prevent mildew; emit most of the low-boiling grass smell, stimulate and retain the high-boiling aromatics, and obtain The unique sweetness of black tea.
Not all black teas are strong and refreshing. In addition to the variety and place of origin, the process of making this is the key to a black tea finally showing its substance. A high-quality black tea, provided the workmanship is excellent.
How to make black tea? Four steps to a black tea fragrance!
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