| 1950s |
Modern Pu'er tea history began in the middle and late 20th century, that is, after 1950. The modern Pu'er tea in Yunnan has undergone great ecological changes, and its manufacturing process has also been reformed. There is a difference in both the quality and taste of Pu'er tea. Beginning in the 1950s, Yunnan in the form of a "cooperative cooperative" system, united major private tea estates in Yunnan Province to form a loose whole, supporting each other and coordinating each other, with a collective concept. Through the guidance of the Yunnan Tea Company, the overall operation is open.
In 1953, private tea houses could only be retailed and not allowed to wholesale, which greatly reduced the scope of private tea business. In 1954, the nation ’s “unified purchase and planned distribution” of tea was implemented, and all teas operated by private tea estates were included in the national plan. Yunnan Pu'er Tea has since been "centrally controlled, locally maintained, coordinated and distributed, and reasonably used." In order to bring tea into the national plan, tea production has been completely handled by the "People's Commune", and there is no more privately stored tea.
In 1958, the Yunnan Finance and Trade Office demanded that governments at all levels expand tea production, clean up and do everything possible to complete the task. So all the people in the tea areas went up the mountain and plucked tea leaves, which caused "a handful of hoe, wipe their heads, cut trees and pick tea," and the tea garden was seriously damaged. The tea trees have become the light branches of the "Sanxiangxiang", and the production has been seriously reduced. As a result, the old tea tree tea gardens have been severely destroyed. The number of tea gardens in Yunnan Province has been reduced to half from 600,000 mu. Until the central government called for "there will be more tea gardens on the hillside", the province responded enthusiastically, setting off a climax of developing new tea gardens and revitalizing the prosperity of tea production in the past.
In the early 1960s, for the mass production of tea, the old tea gardens were replanted, new tea gardens were opened, cutting planting technology was introduced, and bush tea hills were cultivated with large yields and less labor, which fully matched economic benefits. In the "Cultural Revolution", "breaking the four olds and grasping production", on the one hand, swept out the old Pu'er tea products. The Red Guards once set fire to burn out many Chen tea and tea banks, and the rest were sold overseas to earn foreign exchange. At the same time, the quality control system of "quality acceptance" was criticized as capitalism's "control, card, pressure". Therefore, “acquisition does not speak about tea quality, and manufacturing does not speak about traditional methods.” In the late period of the “Cultural Revolution”, Yunnan Tea Company completely changed the production of traditional Pu'er tea and replaced it with the production of black tea, green tea, and Pu'er mature tea. Yunnan red is sold to the international market to earn foreign exchange, green tea is sold in the province, and Pu'er cooked tea is sold to overseas Chinese societies such as Hong Kong, Macao and Southeast Asia.
After reform and opening up
In 1979, China "reformed and opened up", following the plan-market line, focusing on the economy and focusing on economic benefits. The "Successful High-yield and High-yield Symposium on the New Tea Garden Dense Planting" was held in Yuanyang County, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province. The standard was to promote the density of 3,000 to 5,000 tea trees per acre. Tea garden development. Since then, the tea plantation ecology of Yunnan Pu'er Tea has been completely remodeled and completely reformed, and has become a new tea plantation that "develops dwarfing, dense bush planting, artificial fertilizers, mechanical harvesting, thin leaf surface, and increasing yield". In the past, the traditional old-style tea gardens of “big camphor forest, old trees, thick buds, artificial picking, and low-yield production” gradually reduced the proportion. As the reform and opening up progressed, it gradually became the object of key protection. Top Pu'er teas that are in demand with tea friends.
The Pu'er tea products currently on the market are mostly the green tea of the dwarf shrub new tea plantation. Their quality and characteristics are very different from those of the old tea plantation in Zhanglin Arbor. After 1973, in the process of making Pu'er tea, a certain degree of fermentation was added to form Pu'er ripe tea. Since then, Pu'er tea has formed two major categories of raw tea and cooked tea. Therefore, in the Pu'er tea culture , there has also been a "taste old tree raw tea and drink new tree ripe tea ".
After the founding of new China, the historical changes of the development of Pu'er tea industry in China
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